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Archaeologists have conducted several excavations in the inner city since the 1960s revealing wells, streets, homes and workshops.

In the buildings and adjoining archaeological layers, everyday utensils like combs, jewellery and basic multi-purpose tools from approximately the year 900 have been found.

In 2017, Aarhus has been selected as European Capital of Culture along with Paphos in Cyprus.

It is a centre for research and education in the Nordic countries and home to Aarhus University, Scandinavia's largest university, including Aarhus University Hospital and INCUBA Science Park.

Being the Danish city with the youngest demographics, with 48,482 inhabitants aged under 18, Aarhus is known for its musical history.

In 2010, the city council voted to change the name from "Århus" to "Aarhus" to strengthen the international profile of the city. Certain geographically affiliated names have been updated to reflect the name of the city, such as the Aarhus River, changed from "Århus Å" to "Aarhus Å".

It is still grammatically correct to write geographical names with the letter Å and local councils are allowed to use the Aa spelling as an alternative.

Some Danish cities resisted the new spelling of their names, notably Aalborg and Aabenraa.

Århus city council explicitly embraced the new spelling, as it was thought to enhance an image of progressiveness.The charter is the first official recognition of the town as a regional power and is by some considered Aarhus' birth certificate.The official and religious status spurred growth so in 1477 the defensive earthen ramparts, ringing the town since the Viking age, were abandoned to accommodate expansion.In the 900s an earth rampart for the defence of the early city was constructed, encircling the settlement, much like the defence structures found at Viking ring fortresses elsewhere.The rampart was later reinforced by Harald Bluetooth, and together with the town's geographical placement, this suggests that Aros was an important trade and military centre.In the 1950s many jazz clubs sprang up around the city, fuelled by the young population.